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Despite this problem, studies on the paranormal are periodically conducted by researchers from various disciplines.
Some researchers simply study the beliefs in the paranormal regardless of whether the phenomena are considered to objectively exist.
This section deals with various approaches to the paranormal: anecdotal , experimental , and participant-observer approaches and the skeptical investigation approach.
An anecdotal approach to the paranormal involves the collection of stories told about the paranormal. Charles Fort — is perhaps the best-known collector of paranormal anecdotes.
Fort is said to have compiled as many as 40, notes on unexplained paranormal experiences , though there was no doubt many more.
These notes came from what he called "the orthodox conventionality of Science", which were odd events originally reported in magazines and newspapers such as The Times and scientific journals such as Scientific American , Nature and Science.
Reported events that he collected include teleportation a term Fort is generally credited with coining ; poltergeist events; falls of frogs, fishes, and inorganic materials of an amazing range; crop circles ; unaccountable noises and explosions; spontaneous fires ; levitation ; ball lightning a term explicitly used by Fort ; unidentified flying objects ; mysterious appearances and disappearances; giant wheels of light in the oceans; and animals found outside their normal ranges see phantom cat.
He offered many reports of OOPArts , the abbreviation for "out of place" artefacts: strange items found in unlikely locations. He is perhaps the first person to explain strange human appearances and disappearances by the hypothesis of alien abduction and was an early proponent of the extraterrestrial hypothesis.
Fort is considered by many as the father of modern paranormalism, which is the study of the paranormal. The magazine Fortean Times continues Charles Fort's approach, regularly reporting anecdotal accounts of the paranormal.
Such anecdotal collections, lacking the reproducibility of empirical evidence , are not amenable to scientific investigation. The anecdotal approach is not a scientific approach to the paranormal because it leaves verification dependent on the credibility of the party presenting the evidence.
Nevertheless, it is a common approach to investigating paranormal phenomena. Experimental investigation of the paranormal has been conducted by parapsychologists.
Rhine popularized the now famous methodology of using card-guessing and dice-rolling experiments in a laboratory in the hopes of finding evidence of extrasensory perception.
In , the Parapsychological Association was formed as the preeminent society for parapsychologists. In , they became affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Today, many cite parapsychology as an example of a pseudoscience. By the s, the status of paranormal research in the United States had greatly declined from its height in the s, with the majority of work being privately funded and only a small amount of research being carried out in university laboratories.
In , Britain had a number of privately funded laboratories in university psychology departments. While parapsychologists look for quantitative evidence of the paranormal in laboratories, a great number of people immerse themselves in qualitative research through participant-observer approaches to the paranormal.
Participant-observer methodologies have overlaps with other essentially qualitative approaches as well, including phenomenological research that seeks largely to describe subjects as they are experienced , rather than to explain them.
Participant-observation suggests that by immersing oneself in the subject being studied, a researcher is presumed to gain understanding of the subject.
Criticisms of participant-observation as a data-gathering technique are similar to criticisms of other approaches to the paranormal, but also include an increased threat to the objectivity of the researcher, unsystematic gathering of data, reliance on subjective measurement, and possible observer effects observation may distort the observed behavior.
The participant-observer approach to the paranormal has gained increased visibility and popularity through reality television programs like Ghost Hunters , and the formation of independent ghost hunting groups that advocate immersive research at alleged paranormal locations.
One popular website for ghost hunting enthusiasts lists over of these organizations throughout the United States and the United Kingdom. Scientific skeptics advocate critical investigation of claims of paranormal phenomena: applying the scientific method to reach a rational, scientific explanation of the phenomena to account for the paranormal claims, taking into account that alleged paranormal abilities and occurrences are sometimes hoaxes or misinterpretations of natural phenomena.
A way of summarizing this method is by the application of Occam's razor , which suggests that the simpler solution is usually the correct one.
It carries out investigations aimed at understanding paranormal reports in terms of scientific understanding, and publishes its results in the Skeptical Inquirer magazine.
CSI's Richard Wiseman draws attention to possible alternative explanations for perceived paranormal activity in his article, The Haunted Brain.
Wiseman makes the claim that, rather than experiencing paranormal activity, it is activity within our own brains that creates these strange sensations.
Michael Persinger proposed that ghostly experiences could be explained by stimulating the brain with weak magnetic fields.
Oxford University Justin Barrett has theorized that "agency"—being able to figure out why people do what they do—is so important in everyday life, that it is natural for our brains to work too hard at it, thereby detecting human or ghost-like behaviour in everyday meaningless stimuli.
James Randi , an investigator with a background in illusion , feels that the simplest explanation for those claiming paranormal abilities is often trickery, illustrated by demonstrating that the spoon bending abilities of psychic Uri Geller can easily be duplicated by trained stage magicians.
In "anomalistic psychology", paranormal phenomena have naturalistic explanations resulting from psychological and physical factors which have sometimes given the impression of paranormal activity to some people, in fact, where there have been none.
Many studies have found a link between personality and psychopathology variables correlating with paranormal belief.
Bainbridge and Wuthnow found that the most susceptible people to paranormal belief are those who are poorly educated, unemployed or have roles that rank low among social values.
The alienation of these people due to their status in society is said to encourage them to appeal to paranormal or magical beliefs. Research has associated paranormal belief with low cognitive ability , low IQ and a lack of science education.
In a case study Gow, involving participants the findings revealed that psychological absorption and dissociation were higher for believers in the paranormal.
In an experiment Wierzbicki reported a significant correlation between paranormal belief and the number of errors made on a syllogistic reasoning task, suggesting that believers in the paranormal have lower cognitive ability.
In his article 'Creative or Defective' Radin asserts that many academics explain the belief in the paranormal by using one of the three following hypotheses: Ignorance, deprivation or deficiency.
The deprivation hypothesis proposes that these beliefs exist to provide a way to cope in the face of psychological uncertainties and physical stressors.
The deficiency hypothesis asserts that such beliefs arise because people are mentally defective in some way, ranging from low intelligence or poor critical thinking ability to a full-blown psychosis' Radin.
The deficiency hypothesis gets some support from the fact that the belief in the paranormal is an aspect of a schizotypical personality Pizzagalli, Lehman and Brugger, A psychological study involving members of the Society for Psychical Research completed a delusional ideation questionnaire and a deductive reasoning task.
As predicted, the study showed that "individuals who reported a strong belief in the paranormal made more errors and displayed more delusional ideation than skeptical individuals".
There was also a reasoning bias which was limited to people who reported a belief in, rather than experience of, paranormal phenomena. The results suggested that reasoning abnormalities may have a causal role in the formation of paranormal belief.
Research has shown that people reporting contact with aliens have higher levels of absorption, dissociativity, fantasy proneness and tendency to hallucinate.
Findings have shown in specific cases that paranormal belief acts as a psychodynamic coping function and serves as a mechanism for coping with stress.
Gender differences in surveys on paranormal belief have reported women scoring higher than men overall and men having greater belief in UFOs and extraterrestrials.
In a sample of American university students Tobacyk et al. According to American surveys analysed by Bader et al. Polls show that about fifty percent of the United States population believe in the paranormal.
Robert L. Park says a lot of people believe in it because they "want it to be so". A study that utilized a biological motion perception task discovered a "relation between illusory pattern perception and supernatural and paranormal beliefs and suggest that paranormal beliefs are strongly related to agency detection biases".
A study discovered that schizophrenic patients have more belief in psi than healthy adults. Some scientists have investigated possible neurocognitive processes underlying the formation of paranormal beliefs.
It was also realized that people with higher dopamine levels have the ability to find patterns and meanings where there aren't any.
This is why scientists have connected high dopamine levels with paranormal belief. Some scientists have criticised the media for promoting paranormal claims.
In a report Singer and Benassi, wrote that the media may account for much of the near universality of paranormal belief as the public are constantly exposed to films, newspapers, documentaries and books endorsing paranormal claims while critical coverage is largely absent.
Kurtz compared this to a primitive form of magical thinking. Terence Hines has written that on a personal level, paranormal claims could be considered a form of consumer fraud as people are "being induced through false claims to spend their money—often large sums—on paranormal claims that do not deliver what they promise" and uncritical acceptance of paranormal belief systems can be damaging to society.
While the existence of paranormal phenomena is controversial and debated passionately by both proponents of the paranormal and by skeptics , surveys are useful in determining the beliefs of people in regards to paranormal phenomena.
These opinions, while not constituting scientific evidence for or against, may give an indication of the mindset of a certain portion of the population at least among those who answered the polls.
The number of people worldwide who believe in parapsychological powers has been estimated to be 3 to 4 billion.
A survey conducted in by researchers from Australia's Monash University  sought to determine what types of phenomena that people claim to have experienced and the effects these experiences have had on their lives.
The study was conducted as an online survey with over 2, respondents from around the world participating.
They found fairly consistent results compared to the results of a Gallup poll in A survey by Jeffrey S. A National Science Foundation survey found that 9 percent of people polled thought astrology was very scientific , and 31 percent thought it was somewhat scientific.
In the Chapman University Survey of American Fears asked about seven paranormal beliefs and found that "the most common belief is that ancient advanced civilizations such as Atlantis once existed 55 percent.
Next was that places can be haunted by spirits 52 percent , aliens have visited Earth in our ancient past 35 percent , aliens have come to Earth in modern times 26 percent , some people can move objects with their minds 25 percent , fortune tellers and psychics can survey the future 19 percent , and Bigfoot is a real creature.
Only one-fourth of respondents didn't hold at least one of these beliefs. Harry Houdini was a member of the investigating committee.
The first medium to be tested was George Valiantine , who claimed that in his presence spirits would speak through a trumpet that floated around a darkened room.
For the test, Valiantine was placed in a room, the lights were extinguished, but unbeknownst to him his chair had been rigged to light a signal in an adjoining room if he ever left his seat.
Because the light signals were tripped during his performance, Valiantine did not collect the award. Since then, many individuals and groups have offered similar monetary awards for proof of the paranormal in an observed setting.
The James Randi Educational Foundation offers a prize of a million dollars to a person who can prove that they have supernatural or paranormal abilities under appropriate test conditions.
Several other skeptic groups also offer a monied prize for proof of the paranormal, including the largest group of paranormal investigators, the Independent Investigations Group , which has chapters in Hollywood; Atlanta; Denver; Washington, D.
Founded in no claimant has passed the first and lower odds of the test. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about unexplained phenomena.
For phenomena not subject to the laws of nature, see supernatural. For unexplained but presumed natural phenomena, see preternatural. For other uses, see Paranormal disambiguation.
For the film, see Paranormal Activity. Main articles. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. Main article: Ghost hunting.
Main article: Ufology. Main article: Cryptozoology. Main article: Parapsychology. Main article: Anomalistic psychology. Main article: List of prizes for evidence of the paranormal.
Arthur C. Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 7 March The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 3 February Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
Prometheus Books. The Paranormal: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Trafalgar Square. In Dictionary. Pseudoscience and the Paranormal.
Glossary of key words frequently used in parapsychology. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 13 December Gordon , eds.
The Golden Bough. London: Wordsworth. Retrieved 15 June University of California Press. Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Communication.
SAGE Publications. January American Journal of Sociology. Investigating Rhine's methods, we find that his mathematical methods are wrong and that the effect of this error would in some cases be negligible and in others very marked.
We find that many of his experiments were set up in a manner which would tend to increase, instead of to diminish, the possibility of systematic clerical errors; and lastly, that the ESP cards can be read from the back.
Joseph Henry Press. In , Rhine coauthored a book, Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years in which he suggested that something more than mere guess work was involved in his experiments.
He was right! It is now known that the experiments conducted in his laboratory contained serious methodological flaws. Tests often took place with minimal or no screening between the subject and the person administering the test.
Subjects could see the backs of cards that were later discovered to be so cheaply printed that a faint outline of the symbol could be seen.
Furthermore, in face-to-face tests, subjects could see card faces reflected in the tester's eyeglasses or cornea. The Internet's premier A to Z guide and reference source for anyone interested in unusual, strange, unexplained, paranormal and supernatural phenomena.
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